Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Use of Aadhaar enabled Applications on the mobile phone

While Aadhaar-based benefits and service delivery can be made available to residents via agent-assisted kiosks, the Aadhaar secure authentication model will also enable these services to be delivered to residents directly via their mobile phones. This will ensure that residents may securely access their government benefits, track their bank accounts, send and receive money or make payments from the anytime-anywhere convenience of their mobile phones.
In the beginning these services may be largely informational – such as updates about NREGA payments or bank balances. However it is entirely conceivable for residents to be able to register for work under the NREGA scheme as well as payments of bills, micro-insurance premiums and other money transfer transactions right from their mobile phones. In the case of self-service on the resident’s mobile, security is assured using two-factor authentication (i.e. by proving possession of the resident’s registered Mobile Number and knowledge of the resident’s Aadhaar PIN). These standards are compliant with the Reserve Bank of India’s approved standards for Mobile Banking and Payments.
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Aadhaar-based micropayments
Aadhaar, which identifies individuals uniquely on the basis of their demographic information and biometrics, gives individuals the means to clearly establish their identity to public and private agencies across the country. Aadhaar, once it is linked to a bank account, can help poor residents easily establish their identity to banking institutions. As a result, Aadhaar makes it possible for banking institutions to provide ubiquitous, low-cost micro-payments to every resident of India.
Figure 1: Account opening workflow
UIDAI will facilitate Aadhaar-based micro-payments in two phases:
1. During Aadhaar enrollment, UIDAI will collect information from the resident for the purpose of opening an Aadhaar-enabled bank account. The resident’s photograph and demographic data will be sent to a bank to actually open the account.
2. After enrollment, microATMs will be deployed by banks. These handheld devices will make it possible for residents to access their Aadhaar-enabled bank accounts for deposits, withdrawals, remittances, and balance query. The residents will authenticate themselves to the bank by using their Aadhaar number and fingerprint.
It is envisioned that each of India’s 600,000 villages will have two microATMs, as Aadhaar enrollment covers the entire country. Simultaneously,
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microATMs will also be deployed where the urban poor reside, to bring about urban financial inclusion.
The key features of UID-enabled micropayments are as follows:
1. UID KYR sufficient for KYC: The strong authentication that the UID will offer, combined with its KYR standards, will remove the need for individual KYC (Know Your Customer) verification by banks for basic, no-frills accounts. It will thus vastly reduce the documentation the poor are required to produce for a bank account, and significantly bring down KYC costs for banks.
2. Ubiquitous BC network and BC choice: The UID’s clear authentication and verification processes will allow banks to network with village-based BCs (Business Correspondents) such as self-help groups and kirana stores. Customers will be able to withdraw money and make deposits at the local BC.
3. A high-volume, low-cost revenue approach: The UID will mitigate the high customer acquisition costs, high transaction costs and fixed IT costs that are now faced in bringing bank accounts to the poor.
4. Electronic transactions: The UID’s authentication processes will allow banks to verify poor residents both in person and remotely. More importantly, this facilitates direct transfer of benefits (eg., MNREGA wages, old age pensions) to the resident directly without the incumbent leakages of a manual disbursement system.
Thus, UIDAI will help bring about the national goal of inclusive growth.
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Aadhaar & Civil Society Outreach
It is part of the UIDAI mandate to make special efforts to enable the inclusion of marginalized communities (e.g. the homeless, migrant workers, nomadic/denotified tribes, street children, etc.) in AADHAAR. The Registrars will be required to evolve and implement a special campaign to cover this target group. Registrars could also partner with CSOs at the local level to assist them in spreading awareness of AADHAAR among marginalized groups, in planning special enrolment drives for specific groups, and to authorize CSOs as Introducers for those without Proof of Identity and Address.
Legal Framework
The Unique Identification Authority of India has been set up as an attached office of the Planning Commission. The National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010 proposes to establish the National Identification Authority of India, thereby giving it the status of a statutory authority established by an Act of Parliament.
Salient features of the National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010
1. The National Identification Authority of India Bill, 2010, inter alia, seeks to provide―
i. for issue of Aadhaar numbers to every resident by the Authority on providing his demographic information and biometric information to it in such manner as may be specified by regulations;
ii. for authentication of the Aadhaar number of an Aadhaar number holder in relation to his biometric information and demographic information subject to such conditions and on payment of such fees as may be specified by regulations;
iii. for establishment of the National Identification Authority of India consisting of a Chairperson and two part-time Members.
2. The Bill has extra territorial application if the act or conduct constituting the offence or contravention involves the Central Identities Data Repository (CIDR).
3. Residents have been defined to mean individuals usually residing in a village or rural area or town or ward or demarcated area (demarcated by
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the Registrar General of Citizen Registration) within a ward in a town or urban area in India.
4. The Aadhaar number will be a random number and once issued will not be re-assigned. It will not bear any attributes or identity data relating to the Aadhaar number holder.
5. An Aadhaar number, subject to authentication, shall be accepted as proof of identity of the Aadhaar number holder.
6. The response to authentication would be a yes or no only. No demographic information or biometric information will be given as a response.
7. Aadhaar number or the authentication thereof shall not, by itself, confer any right of or be proof of citizenship or domicile in respect of an Aadhaar number holder.
8. The Authority shall not require any individual to give information pertaining to his race, religion, caste, tribe, ethnicity, language, income or health.
9. The Authority shall take special measures to issue Aadhaar number to women, children, senior citizens, persons with disability, migrant, unskilled and un-organized workers, nomadic tribes and such other categories of individuals as may be specified by regulations.
10. The Authority has been cast with an obligation to ensure the security and confidentiality of identity information of individuals. The Authority shall take measures (including security safeguards) to ensure that the information in the possession or control of the Authority (including information stored in the Central Identities Data Repository) is secured and protected against any loss or unauthorized access or use or unauthorized disclosure.
11. The Authority will be bound to disclose the information in pursuance of an order of the competent Court or in the interest of national security.
12. An Aadhaar number holder shall be entitled to obtain details of request for authentication of his Aadhaar number and the response provided on the request by the Authority in the manner as may be specified by regulations.
13. The Bill provides for the powers which can be exercised by the Authority and also certain functions which can be discharged by it. These, inter alia, include―
i. Specifying the demographic information and biometric information for enrolment for an Aadhaar number and the processes for collection and verification thereof.
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ii. Collecting demographic information and biometric information from any individual seeking an Aadhaar number in such manner as may be specified by regulations.
iii. Appointing of one or more entities to operate the Central Identities Data Repository;
iv. Maintaining and updating the information of individuals in the Central Identities Data Repository in such manner as may be specified by regulations.
v. Specify the usage and applicability of the Aadhaar number for delivery of various benefits and services as may be provided by regulations.
vi. Setting up facilitation centers and grievance redressal mechanisms for redressal of grievances of the residents, Registrars, enrolling agencies and other service providers.
vii. Enter into Memorandum of Understanding or agreements with Central Government, State Government or Union Territories or other agencies for the purpose of performing any of the functions in relations to collecting, storing, securing or processing of information or performing authentication.
14. The Bill also provides for offences and penalties for contravention of the provisions of the legislation. Penalties have been, inter alia, specified for-
i. Impersonation at the time of enrolment by providing any false demographic information or biometric information.
ii. Impersonating or attempting to impersonate another person with the intention of causing harm or mischief to an Aadhaar number holder or with the intention of appropriating the identity of Aadhaar number holder by changing or attempting to change any demographic information or biometric information.
iii. Unauthorized collection of identity information.
iv. Disclosing identity information collected in the course of enrollment or authentication to any unauthorized person.
v. Unauthorized access to the Central Identity Data Repository (CIDR), which also includes –
 Unauthorized downloading, copying or extracting of data from CIDR,
 Introducing any virus or other computer contaminant in the CIDR,
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 Damaging the data in CIDR, disrupting the access to CIDR,
 Denying or causing denial to access the CIDR,
 Destroying, deleting or altering any information stored in any removable storage media or CIDR,
 Stealing, concealing, destroying or altering any computer source code used by the Authority with an intention to cause damage.
vi. Tampering with data in CIDR or in any removable storage medium with the intent of modifying information relating to Aadhaar number holder or discovering any information thereof.
vii. Attempting to give false biometric information for getting an Aadhaar number or updating the information.
Information, Education and Communication
Information, Education and Communication (IEC) is an important process in developing and executing the communication strategy for the enrolment and Aadhaar enabled services. The main communication objectives of the UIDAI are as follows:
1. Complete Coverage: Ensure communication reaches each resident of India.
2. Understanding Aadhaar: Ensure all residents understand what Aadhaar is, what benefits it can provide to people and how it will be used going ahead.
3. Understanding the Aadhaar process: Ensure residents understand Aadhaar enrolment process, how and when they can get their Aadhaar and know the grievance handling mechanism.
4. Uniform Understanding: Ensure the above understanding is uniform across residents.
5. Sustain Demand: Reassure the first few experiences on usage of Aadhaar and amplify on positive experiences to further create and sustain demand on a regular basis.
The Registrar, along with the UIDAI Regional Offices and Headquarters are required to disseminate information regarding Aadhaar so that benefits of governmental and other schemes reach the intended beneficiaries.
To ensure comprehensive coverage across all the residents, the message of Aadhaar shall be spread through the following communication channels:
i. Broadcast & Telecast: TV, radio, print, internet
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ii. Information: News and publications
iii. Outdoors: Posters, handouts, wall paintings, banners, hoardings
iv. Entertainment: Cinema, sports, endorsements
v. Inter-personal: Audio/video screening, telecom, folk and traditional media
Before undertaking the production and dissemination of creative elements the UIDAI ROs in collaboration with the Registrars prepare IEC plans to be implemented. UIDAI provides all the support and guidance to the Registrars for the activities pertaining to core messaging of Aadhaar - its features and benefits.

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